Typologies of Entrepreneurship Typologioita yrittäjyydestä ja yrittäjistä



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Danny Miller(1983). The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms
Management Science
, Vol. 29, No. 7 (Jul., 1983), pp. 770-791(article consists of 22 pages)Published by: INFORMS.Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2630968

1. John B. Miner (2008) Testing a Psychological Typology of Entrepreneurship Using Business Founders.

John B. MinerTesting a Psychological Typology of Entrepreneurship Using Business Founders. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science March 2000 36: 43-69.

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Christian Korunka, Hermann Frank, Manfred Lueger & Josef Mugler. The Entrepreneurial Personality in the Context of Resources, Environment, and the Startup Process—A Configurational Approach. Article first published online: 9 SEP 2003. DOI: 10.1111/1540-8520.00030 Issue: Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Volume 28, Issue 1, pages 23–42, September 2003.



Malin Brännback and Alan Carsrud. Cognitive Maps in Entrepreneurship: Researching Sense Making and Action. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Mind International Studies in Entrepreneurship, 2009, Volume 24, Part 2, 75-96, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0443-0_5.


Role typologies for enterprising education: the professional artisan?

Author(s): Alistair R. Anderson, (Charles P. Skene Centre for Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK), Sarah L. Jack, (Institute for Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development, Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster, UK)
Citation: Alistair R. Anderson, Sarah L. Jack, (2008) "Role typologies for enterprising education: the professional artisan?", Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 15 Iss: 2, pp.259 - 273









John B. Miner. (1997) A Psychological Typology of Successful Entrepreneurs.

The types of entrepreneurship
Schumpeter’s entrepreneurial tasks

Schumpeter tied entrepreneurship to the creation of five basic "new combinations."

1. Introduction of a new good
2. Introduction of a new method of production
3. The opening of a new market
4. The conquest of a new source of supply
5. The carrying out of a new organization of industry

The first, introduction of a new product, is a direct increase in human welfare. We buy so much useless junk these days that it is difficult to think that way but you don't have to go back too many years before you realize how much better off we are today. One clue: look at the size of the closets in older houses. The remaining four new combinations result in the reduction of costs and thus indirectly increase human welfare. Most of the new combinations concern "how" (or method), rather than "what" (a new product).

We often hear that we need more creative individuals so that we will have more entrepreneurship. Let's step back and expand this list somewhat.

Types of entrepreneurship

Let's distinguish between three types of entrepreneurship. We'll define entrepreneurship as an activity that produces an economic profit (remember, according to economists, your uncle's provision shop does not produce a profit, even though he's driving a Merc) and using the usefulness to society (as difficult as that is to define in practice) as the test criterion for differentiating between the types.

We would first have productive entrepreneurship. This would include those activities identified by Schumpeter with the possible addition of a few additional types of combinations.

Then we might think of unproductive entrepreneurship. Firms can base their profits on a special relationship to government or a special provision of the law that favors them. Think of "crony capitalism." Some people term this type of activity, "rent-seeking." You might even think of corruption as fitting in here. If the formal institutions of a country worked well, none of these type of activities could exist. What is also clear is that the opportunities for unproductive entrepreneurship could pull some individuals away from productive entrepreneurship. There is less risk.

If we can have unproductive entrepreneurship, might there not be destructive entrepreneurship? We might even call the people who engage in this type of entrepreneurship criminals. Is crime a matter of passion, or just a matter of work? Think of drug dealers. Many would fit Schumpeter’s criteria for entrepreneurship except, their product is usually harmful.

We want a resilient economy. We want people to be creative and innovating. But in which areas should they be working? In which areas will they be working? If entrepreneurship is to aid further economic development, the payoffs need to be for the first type of entrepreneurship. The trouble is, it is often easier to engage in the second type of entrepreneurship, especially in social systems where loyalty is seen as being important. Ask yourself, what are the payoffs to each type of entrepreneurship?


The contribution of entrepreneurship

The types of entrepreneurship

The determinants of entrepreneurship

The consequences of entrepreneurship

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Types of entrepreneurs



Erilaisia yrittäjiä Euroopasta

Other sources
Professor Mark Hart

Puhakka Vesa Yrittäjän persoonallisuus ja miksi sitä kannattaa tutkia. LTA.

Ryhänen Hannu eTyö ja yrittäjyys Pielisen Karjalassa (PDF)

Kuratko, D.F. & Hodgetts, R.M. Entrepreneurship. A Contemporary Approach.
Allen, K. R. Launching New Ventures. An Entrepreneurial Approach

Donald F. Kuratko The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Education: Development, Trends, and Challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Volume 29, Issue 5, pages 577–598, September 2005.

PDF eBook search and approach

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Kun Suomalaista yrittäjää on tutkittu, on todettu, että tyypillisimmillään hän on 46-vuotias opistotason koulutuksen saanut mies. (Luultavimmin insinööri.)

Ennen yrittäjäksi ryhtymistä tehnyt useita vuosia palkkatyötä ja hankkinut kannuksensa ja laaja-alaisen kokemuksensa siellä. Useimmiten hän perustaa palvelualan yrityksen (liike-elämän palvelut tai kauppa). Yhtiömuotona hänellä on osakeyhtiö.


Omavaraisuusaste yli 40 % ja sijoitetun pääoman tuotto yli 12 %. Itsensä lisäksi hän työllistää 2-3 henkilöä. Usein vaimo ja lapset huhkivat palkatta kaiken vapaa-aikansa miehen yrityksessä.

Yrittäjä tekee keskimäärin 20 % pidempää työpäivää kuin palkansaaja ja hänen perheeseen kuuluu asuu 2,7 henkeä (palkansaajaperhe 2,4 henk.). Tärkeitä asioita turvallisuus, toimeentulo, perhe ja vapaus.

Käteen jäävä tulo 29 % korkeampi kuin palkansaajalla. Hän on keskimääräistä kansalaista vauraampi. Yrittäjä kuluttaa keskimääräistä enemmän asumiseen, liikenteeseen ja terveyteen sekä vähemmän kulttuuriin, vapaa-aikaan ja ravintoloihin. (Lähde: Suomen Yrittäjät, Antti Neimala 2009.)

Entrepreneurship
(Figure: Innovation and Entrepreneurship Insights)


Comments

Ilcaccio said…
Blogisi oli hivenen raskas lukea, vaikka aihe oli kyllä mielenkiintoinen..

Mikäli tahdot lukaista kaverini bloggauksen, kuinka parantaa blogikirjoittamistasi, niin poikkea täällä:
http://blogi.poikkeama.fi/kuusi-tapaa-parantaa-kirjoitustasi/
Margit Niemelä said…
Kiitos kommentistasi.
Blogini on aivan varmasti raskas ja jopa aivan mahdoton lukea, koska sitä ei ole tarkoitettukaan "luettavaksi" perinteisessä mielessä.

Tavoitteeni on kerätä tänne lähdevinkkejä ja opetuksessa käyttämääni materiaalia, joista omat opiskelijani saavat lähdeaineistovinkkejä ja ne toimivat heille muistilappuina ja polkuina uusiin lähteisiin.

Toisaalta itselleni blogi toimii myös muistilappuna ja insipiraation lähteenä suunnitellessani opetusta ja kirjoittaessani tutkimsartikkeleja.