Von Thünen Model for the Use of Land

Kuva Margit Mannila 
Von Thünen Model for the Use of Land II

Thünen developed the basics of the theory of marginal productivity in a mathematically rigorous way, summarizing it in the formula in which
R = Y(p - c) - YFm \,


  • R = Rent per unit of land.
  • Y = Yield per unit of land.
  • p = market price per unit of yield.
  • c = Average production costs per unit of yield.
  • m = Distance from market (in kilometers or miles).
  • f = Freight rate per unit of yield and unit of distance (Source here ; geography of trasporting systems) by Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography
Thünen's model of agricultural land, created before industrialization, made the following simplifying assumptions:
  • The city is located centrally within an "Isolated State."
  • The Isolated State is surrounded by wilderness.
  • The land is completely flat and has no rivers or mountains.
  • Soil quality and climate are consistent.
  • Farmers in the Isolated State transport their own goods to market via oxcart, across land, directly to the central city. There are no roads.
  • Farmers behave rationally to maximize profits. (Wikipedia)

Source: http://faculty.wwu.edu/patrick/envs342-geo312/Lectures--Powerpoints/312-ch5-agri-2005/Chapter%205/von-model1.gif (30.3.2016). Text from here.

J.H. von Thünen

The Von Thünen Model. A Model of Agricultural Land Use. (30.3.2016).

A Modern version of von Thünen model is greated by William Alonso.  In 1960 William Alonso completed his dissertation which extended the vonThünen model to urban land uses.

Source: http://image.slidesharecdn.com/5urbanmodels-090312094928-phpapp01/95/5-urban-models-3-728.jpg?cb=1236851412 (30.3.2016)
http://www.slideshare.net/ecumene/5-urban-models (30.3.2016)

Source: http://faculty.wwu.edu/patrick/envs342-geo312/Lectures--Powerpoints/312-ch5-agri-2005/Chapter%205/urban%20rent%20curve.gif  (30.3.2016).


Source: http://images.slideplayer.com/13/3907423/slides/slide_58.jpg. (30.3.2016)
http://slideplayer.com/slide/3907423/ (30.3.2016)

Angelsen Arlid

Robert G. Cromley (1982) The Von Thünen Model and Environmental Uncertainty
Annals of the Association of American Geographers 72 (3) , 404–410

von Thünen Model

American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The, Jan, 2001 by Daniel Block, E. Melanie Dupuis
Making the Country Work for the City: Von Thunen's Ideas in Geography, Agricultural Economics and the Sociology of Agriculture

Rosenberg Matt
A Model of Agricultural Land Use

Von Thünen Model Exercise

http://www.csiss.org/classics/content/9 (copy +paste)

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Really a great paper!

von Thünen

Philip Steadman von Thünen Model

Von Thunen Revisited: A Neoclassical Land Use Model
Martin J. Beckmann The Swedish Journal of Economics, Vol. 74, No. 1, Economics of Location: Theory and Policy Aspects (Mar., 1972), pp. 1-7

OPPIHISTORIALLINEN KATSAUS KAUPUNKITALOUSTIETEESEEN1 VTT Seppo Laakso, Kaupunkitutkimus TA Oy, VTT Heikki A. Loikkanen, Kaupunkitaloustieteen professori HY, VTM Henrik Lönnqvist, Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus
von Thünen


Cromley R G, Hanink D M, 1989, "A financial-economic von Thünen model" Environment and Planning A 21(7) 951 – 960
Received 19 January 1988; in revised form 1 June 1988
Abstract. The von Thünen model of agricultural land use is reformulated in this paper as an investment decision in which the objectives of farmers range from total risk-aversion to profit-maximization. By means of a variant of the mean-variance model of contemporary portfolio theory, it is demonstrated that individual bid-rent functions depend on the nature of a farmer's utility function. Because farmers' objectives affect their bid-rent functions, the spatial pattern of agricultural production is also affected. The conventional result of the von Thuënen model is shown to be a special case of the more general portfolio model.
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Beckmann Martin J. Application of a neoclassical von THÜnen model to the housing market

Published Online: 29 Nov 2007
Editor(s): Richard J. Arnott, Daniel P. McMillen
Print ISBN: 9781405106290 Online ISBN: 9780470996225
Copyright © 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity? E. F. Lambin, , M. D. A. Rounsevell and H. J. Geist Department of Geography, University of Louvain, Place Louis Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

von Thünen

See also this

Waldo Tobler 


Alonso,W. (1964), Location and Land Use. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Buurman, J.J.G. (2003), Rural Land Markets, A spatial explanatory model, Ph.D Thesis, Vrije
Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Mannila, Margit. (2015). Von Thünen Model for Use of Land II. (30.3.2016).

Thünen, von J.H. (1826), Der Isolierte Staat in Beziehung auf Landschaft und Nationalökonomie.

Trans. By C.M. Wartenberg (1966) Von Thünen’s Isolated State. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Vreeker, R., H.L.F. de Groot & E.T. Verhoef (2004), Urban Multifunctional Land Use: Theoretical and

(Edit 8.11.2016)