Scientific Problems (Bunge 1967)

Source: Bunge Mario (Eds.) (1967). Scientific Research I The Search for System.Berlin: Springer-Verlag

Substantive or object problems (Ex.: How many A's are there?)
Scientific problems< style="font-style: italic;">How shall we count A's?)

(Bunge 1967, 184)

Table 4.2. Substantive problems

1. Empirical problems
1.1. Data finding: characterizing objects of experience

1.1.1. Observing
1.1.2. Counting
1.1.3. Measuring

1.2. Making: constructing and calibrating insturumnents, preparing drugs, etc.

2. Conceptual problems
2.1. Describing: characterizing individuals and classes

2.2. Arranging: Classing and orering sets

2.3. Elucidating: interpreting signs and refining concepts

2.4. Deducing
2.4.1. Computing (e.g., finding the value of a variable)
2.4.2. Proving a theorem
2.4.3. Checking a solution
2.4.4. Explaining: accounting for facts and empirical generalizations in terms of theories
2.4.5. Projecting: predicting or retrodicting facts

2.5. Building: inventing ideas
2.5.1. Introducing a new concept
2.5.2. Introducing an empirical generalization
2.5.3. Introducing a high level hypothesis subsuming empirical generalizations
2.5.4. Building a system of high level hypothesis (a theory)
2.5.5. Theory reconstruction (foundational research)

2.6. Metalogical: uncovering and removal of inconsistencies, proving consistency and independence, etc. (Bunge 1967, 185.)

Table 4.3. Strategy problems

1. Methodological
1.1.. Conventions: setting up designation rules, measurement scales and units, levels of significance, etc.
1.2. Tehniques: devising tactics for solving problems, observing, measuring, etc.
1.3. Experiment design: planning experiments
1.4. Theory design: planning the building of theories
1.5. Method examination: anallysis and criticism of any of the above

2. Valuational
2.1. Weighing data, hypotheses, theories, techniques and material equipment in terms of given desiderata
2.2. Foundational valuation: examination of the desiderata themselves
(Bunge 1967, 185.)