Shalom Schwartz the content and structure of values

Shalom Schwartz

Basic values in Europe (Schwartzin luento Brysselissä)

Dietz, T., Kalot, L. & Stern, P.C. Gender, values and environmentalism. Social Sience Quarterly 83(1), 351-364.

Human values

Shalom Schwartzin (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances
and empirical tests in 20 countiries

Dario Spini (2003).Measurement Equivalence Of 10 Value Types From The Schwartz Value Survey Across 21 Countries.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2003; 34; 3

Full Articles available:

G. N. Abbott, B. W. Stening, P. W.B. Atkins, and A. M. Grant
Coaching expatriate managers for success: Adding value beyond training and mentoring
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, December 1, 2006; 44(3): 295 - 317.

R. Fischer
Congruence and Functions of Personal and Cultural Values: Do My Values Reflect My Culture's Values?
Pers Soc Psychol Bull, November 1, 2006; 32(11): 1419 - 1431.

R. Fischer
Standardization to Account for Cross-Cultural Response Bias: A Classification of Score Adjustment Procedures and Review of Research in JCCP
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, May 1, 2004; 35(3): 263 - 282.

S. Madzar
Subordinates' Information Inquiry in Uncertain Times: A Cross Cultural Consideration of Leadership Style Effect
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, December 1, 2005; 5(3): 255 - 274.

T. L. Milfont, J. Duckitt, and L. D. Cameron
A Cross-Cultural Study of Environmental Motive Concerns and Their Implications for Proenvironmental Behavior
Environment and Behavior, November 1, 2006; 38(6): 745 - 767.

S. A. Sackmann and M. E. Phillips
Contextual Influences on Culture Research: Shifting Assumptions for New Workplace Realities
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, December 1, 2004; 4(3): 370 - 390.

P. B. Smith, M. F. Peterson, A. H. Ahmad, D. Akande, J. A. Andersen, S. Ayestaran, M. Bellotto, S. Bochner, V. Callan, C. Davila, B. Ekelund, P.-H. Francois, G. Graversen, C. Harb, J. Jesuino, A. Kantas, L. Karamushka, P. Koopman, K. Leung, P. Kruzela, S. Malvezzi, A. Mogaji, S. Mortazavi, J. Munene, K. Parry, T. K. Peng, B. J. Punnett, M. Radford, A. Ropo, S. Sadhwani, J. Saiz, G. Savage, R. Sorenson, E. Szabo, P. Teparakul, A. Tirmizi, S. Tsvetanova, C. Viedge, C. Wall, Z. M. Wang, and V. Yanchuk
Demographic Effects on the Use of Vertical Sources of Guidance by Managers in Widely Differing Cultural Contexts
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, April 1, 2005; 5(1): 5 - 26.

Ariel Knafo and Shalom H. Schwartzn Israel (2001). Value Socialization in Families of Israeli-Born and Soviet-Born Adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 3 2001; vol. 32: pp. 213 - 228.

Shalom H. Schwartz and Anat Bardi (2001). Value Hierarchies Across Cultures: Taking a Similarities Perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5 2001; vol. 32: pp. 268 - 290.

Shalom H. Schwartz, Gila Melech, Arielle Lehmann, Steven Burgess, Mari Harris, and Vicki Owens (2001). Extending the Cross-Cultural Validity of the Theory of Basic Human Values with a Different Method of Measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9 2001; vol. 32: pp. 519 - 542.

Shalom H. Schwartz and Galit Sagie (2000). Value Consensus and Importance: A Cross-National Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 7 2000; vol. 31: pp. 465 - 497.

Shalom H. Schwartz and Lilach Sagiv (1995). Identifying Culture-Specifics in the Content and Structure of Values. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1 1995; vol. 26: pp. 92 - 116.

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 2, 188-208 (2002)
DOI: 10.1177/0022022102033002005
© 2002 SAGE Publications

Cultural Values, Sources of Guidance, and their Relevance to Managerial Behavior

A 47-Nation Study

Peter B. Smith

University of Sussex

Mark F. Peterson

Florida Atlantic University

Shalom H. Schwartz

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Data are presented showing how middle managers in 47 countries report handling eight specific work events. The data are used to test the ability of cultural value dimensions derived from the work of Hofstede, Trompenaars, and Schwartz to predict the specific sources of guidance on which managers rely. Focusing on sources of guidance is expected to provide a more precise basis than do generalized measures of values for understanding the behaviors that prevail within different cultures. Values are strongly predictive of reliance on those sources of guidance that are relevant to vertical relationships within organizations. However, values are less successful in predicting reliance on peers and on more tacit sources of guidance. Explaining national differences in these neglected aspects of organizational processes will require greater sensitivity to the culture-specific contexts within which they occur.

Evert van de Vliert, Shalom H. Schwartz, Sipke E. Huismans, Geert Hofstede, and Serge Daan (1999). Temperature, Cultural Masculinity, and Domestic Political Violence: A Cross-National Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5 1999; vol. 30: pp. 291 - 314.

P. B. Smith
Acquiescent Response Bias as an Aspect of Cultural Communication Style
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, January 1, 2004; 35(1): 50 - 61.

M. H. Bond, K. Leung, A. Au, K.-K. Tong, S. R. de Carrasquel, F. Murakami, S. Yamaguchi, G. Bierbrauer, T. M. Singelis, M. Broer, F. Boen, S. M. Lambert, M. C. Ferreira, K. A. Noels, J. van Bavel, S. Safdar, J. Zhang, L. Chen, I. Solcova, I. Stetovska, T. Niit, K.-K. Niit, H. Hurme, M. Boling, V. Franchi, G. Magradze, N. Javakhishvili, K. Boehnke, E. Klinger, X. Huang, M. Fulop, M. Berkics, P. Panagiotopoulou, S. Sriram, N. Chaudhary, A. Ghosh, N. Vohra, D. F. Iqbal, J. Kurman, R. D. Thein, A. L. Comunian, S. K. Ae, I. Austers, C. Harb, J. O. T. Odusanya, Z. A. Ahmed, R. Ismail, F. van deVijver, C. Ward, A. Mogaji, D. L. Sam, M. J. Z. Khan, W. E. Cabanillas, L. Sycip, F. Neto, R. Cabecinhas, P. Xavier, M. Dinca, N. Lebedeva, A. Viskochil, O. Ponomareva, S. M. Burgess, L. Oceja, S. Campo, K.-K. Hwang, J. B. D'souza, B. Ataca, A. Furnham, and J. R. Lewis
Culture-Level Dimensions of Social Axioms and Their Correlates across 41 Cultures
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, September 1, 2004; 35(5): 548 - 570.

Valjakka Mikki Työ tekijäänsä kiittää?

E. Van de Vliert
Autocratic Leadership Around the Globe: Do Climate and Wealth Drive Leadership Culture?
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, January 1, 2006; 37(1): 42 - 59.

Arora, A., Fosfuri, A. (2000), "Wholly owned subsidiary versus technology licensing in the worldwide chemical industry", Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 31 No.4, pp.555-73.

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Breet, J.M., Okumura, T. (1998), "Inter and intra-cultural negotiation: US and Japanese negotiators", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 41 No.5, pp.495-510.

Clark, T., Pugh, D.S. (2001), "Foreign country priorities in the internationalization process: a measure and an exploratory test on British firms", International Business Review, Vol. 10 pp.285-303.

Dorfman, P.W., Howell, J.P. (1988), "Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited", Advances in International Comparative Management, Vol. 3 pp.127-50.

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Fernandez, D.R., Carlson, D.S., Stepina, L.P., Nicholson, J.D. (1997), "Hofstede's country classification 25 years later", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 137 No.1, pp.43-54.

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Hofstede, G. (2002), "Dimensions do not exist: a reply to Brendan McSweeney", Human Relations, Vol. 55 No.11, pp.1355.

Holden, N. (2004), "Viewpoints: why marketers need a new concept of culture for the global knowledge economy", International Marketing Review, Vol. 21 No.6, pp.563.

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Husted, B.W. (2000), "The impact of national culture on software piracy", Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 26 pp.197-211.

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Jackson, T. (2001), "Cultural values and management ethics: a 10-nation study", Human Relations, Vol. 54 No.10, pp.1267-302.

Kacen, J.J., Lee, J.A. (2002), "The influence of culture on consumer impulsive buying behavior", Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 12 No.20, pp.163-76.

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Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F., Schwartz, S.H. (2002), "Cultural values, sources of guidance, and their relevance to managerial behaviour: a 47-nation study", Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, Vol. 33 No.2, pp.188-208.

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HighBeam, articles

Maria D. De Juan Vigaray, Faculty of Economics, University of Alicante, Spain
Monali Hota, IESEG School of Management, Lille Catholic University, France.
Schwartz values, consumer values and segmentation: The Spanish fashion apparel case. (PDF)

Jeff Joireman and Blythe Duella (2007). Self-transcendent values moderate the impact of mortality salience on support for charities.Personality and Individual Differences
Volume 43, Issue 4, September 2007, Pages 779-789
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.02.003 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Cited By in Scopus (1)
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Schwartz articles, reference list
Project: References


Search History * #2 ((Schwartz) in AU) and ((values) in SU) (68 records)
#1 (Schwartz) in AU,CA (3098 records)

Record 1 of 31 in PsycINFO 1999-2000/11

AN: 2000-08549-003
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value consensus and importance: A cross-national study.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Sagie,-Galit
SO: Journal-of-Cross-Cultural-Psychology. 2000 Jul; Vol 31(4): 465-497
FTXT: SwetsNet (European Mirror) SwetsNet (US Mirror) EBSCO Online
PB: US: Sage Publications Inc.
IS: 0022-0221
PY: 2000
AB: Societal value consensus has been widely discussed but rarely studied empirically. The authors developed a definition and an operational index for value consensus suitable for cross-national comparisons. They then generated and tested hypotheses concerning causal impacts of socioeconomic development and political democratization on value importance and value consensus in a society. Data are from matched samples of teachers from 42 nations (N = 7,856) who completed a survey that measures 10 distinct types of values. Both development and democratization correlate positively with the importance of openness and self-transcendence values, and negatively with the importance of conservation and self-enhancement values. Development and democratization have opposite relations to value consensus, suppressing one another's effects. Development increases overall value consensus, whereas democratization decreases it. Differences between effects on specific value types are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000
APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Democracy-; *Economics-; *Social-Values; *Sociocultural-Factors

Record 2 of 31 in PsycINFO 1999-2000/11

AN: 2000-08209-002
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value priorities and subjective well-being: Direct relations and congruity effects.
AU: Sagiv,-Lilach; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: European-Journal-of-Social-Psychology. 2000 Mar-Apr; Vol 30(2): 177-198
PB: US: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
IS: 0046-2772
PY: 2000
AB: Two studies investigated relations of value priorities to measures of subjective well-being. 1,261 students and adults from Israel and former East and West Germany participated in Part I. Hypothesized direct relations of nine types of values to well-being, based on 'healthy' values from the psychotherapy literature, relations of values to needs, self-determination theory, and the emotional resources needed to pursue various values were tested in each sample. Achievement, self-direction, stimulation, tradition, conformity and security values correlated with affective well-being, as predicted, but not with cognitive well-being. Part II tested the hypothesis that well-being depends upon congruence between personal values and the prevailing value environment. Results largely supported specific hypotheses regarding the values conducive to positive and negative well-being among 40 business administration and 42 psychology students. Hypotheses were derived from the social sanctions, environmental affordances fo
r value attainment, and internal value conflicts likely to be experienced in each department. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Person-Environment-Fit; *Values-; *Well-Being

Record 3 of 31 in PsycINFO 1999-2000/11

AN: 2000-07472-005
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Worries and values.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Sagiv,-Lilach; Boehnke,-Klaus
SO: Journal-of-Personality. 2000 Apr; Vol 68(2): 309-346
FTXT: EBSCO Online SwetsNet (European Mirror) SwetsNet (US Mirror) InformationQuest
PB: US: Blackwell Publishers.
IS: 0022-3506
PY: 2000
AB: Investigated the relations of 1,441 individuals' (mean age 32.4 yrs) value priorities to their worries in 7 samples (college students, adults, and immigrants) from 4 cultural groups (Eastern and Western Germany, Israel, and Russia). A social-cognitive analysis suggests that value priorities influence worries by increasing attention to and perception of threats to valued goals. On this basis, the authors generate hypotheses relating 2 types of worries, micro (about self and its extensions) and macro (about society and world), to 10 types of values. As predicted, giving priority to self-transcendence values (universalism and benevolence) is associated with low micro and high macro worry, whereas giving priority to self-enhancement values (power, hedonism, and--to a lesser degree--achievement) is associated with high micro and low macro worry. Meaningful associations are also found for other values. Values account for substantially more variance in macro than in micro worries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)
2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Adult-Attitudes; *Anxiety-; *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Values-

Record 4 of 31 in PsycINFO 1999-2000/11

AN: 1999-00535-003
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Basic individual values, work values, and the meaning of work.
AU: Ros,-Maria; Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Surkiss,-Shoshana
SO: Applied-Psychology:-An-International-Review. 1999 Jan; Vol 48(1): 49-71
FTXT: Catchword EBSCO Online SwetsNet (European Mirror) SwetsNet (US Mirror) InformationQuest
PB: US: Taylor and Francis.
IS: 0269-994X
PY: 1999
AB: A theory of basic individual values is presented and applied in studying work. Work goals or values are seen as expressions of basic values in the work setting. Basic values imply four types of work values: intrinsic, extrinsic, social, and prestige. These four types emerge in re-examinations of past research and in Study 1 of a representative Israeli sample of 999 adults. Intercorrelations among these value types support theorising about the structure of work values. Study 2 explores the meaning of work as a vehicle for goal attainment. 193 Spanish teachers and 179 education students rated the importance of work and of a comprehensive set of basic values as guiding principles. For the teachers, work apparently serves to attain social stability and close social relations. For the students, work is associated with these goals and with promoting personal interests, independence, and excitement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Personal-Values; *Work-Attitudes-Toward

Record 5 of 31 in PsycINFO 1999-2000/11

AN: 1999-00535-002
DT: Journal-Article
TI: A theory of cultural values and some implications for work.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Applied-Psychology:-An-International-Review. 1999 Jan; Vol 48(1): 23-47
FTXT: Catchword EBSCO Online SwetsNet (European Mirror) SwetsNet (US Mirror) InformationQuest
PB: US: Taylor and Francis.
IS: 0269-994X
PY: 1999
AB: A theory of the types of values on which cultures can be compared is presented and validated with data from 49 nations from around the world. Seven types of values are identified, structured along three polar dimensions: Conservatism versus Intellectual and Affective Autonomy; Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism; and Mastery versus Harmony. Based on their cultural value priorities, nations are arrayed in a two-dimensional space, revealing meaningful groupings of culturally related nations. Analyses replicate with both urban teachers of grades 3-12 and college student samples. Implications of national differences in cultural values for differences in meaning of work are explicated. To stimulate research on cultural values and work, hypotheses are developed regarding the cultural value emphases that are especially compatible or conflicting with work centrality, with different societal norms about work, and with the pursuit of four types of work values or goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all right
s reserved)
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Theories-; *Values-; *Work-Attitudes-Toward

Record 6 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1998-02134-004
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value priorities and gender.
AU: Prince-Gibson,-Eetta; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Social-Psychology-Quarterly. 1998 Mar; Vol 61(1): 49-67
PB: US: American Sociological Assn.
IS: 0190-2725
PY: 1998
AB: Used theories of gender and research on values to generate hypotheses about the impact on value priorities of gender differences and of interactions of gender with possible sociodemographic moderators of gender experience: age, education, and ethnicity. Data were gathered in 1990 from a probability sample representative of the Israeli Jewish population above age 19 (480 males and 519 females) living in all types of settlements except kibbutzim. An Israeli national sample revealed no main effects of gender on the importance attributed to any of 10 different types of values, nor any interactions with age, education, or ethnicity. The latter all showed substantial, predicted effects on value priorities. Structural analyses of value systems revealed that the values had quite similar meanings for men and for women. Explanations for the absence of gender differences in value priorities are discussed in this study and directions for future studies are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all right
s reserved)
MJ: *Demographic-Characteristics; *Human-Sex-Differences; *Values-

Record 7 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1998-01230-002
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Values and voting.
AU: Barnea,-Marina-F; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Political-Psychology. 1998 Mar; Vol 19(1): 17-40
FTXT: EBSCO Online InformationQuest
PB: US: Blackwell Publishers.
IS: 0162-895X
PY: 1998
AB: We examined relations of the 10 types of values in S. H. Schwartz's (1992) theory of voting. Hypotheses were generated by relating the core motivations of each value type to the ideological messages conveyed by party policies and symbols. Eight parties that ran in the 1988 Israeli elections were arrayed by judges on three ideological dimensions: classical liberalism, economic egalitarianism, state and religion. Discriminant analyses yielded a function whose coefficients for value types corresponded to hypotheses for the state and religion dimension and ordered party supporters on this dimension. After dropping religious parties, another value-based function ordered party supporters on the classical liberalism dimension, as predicted. Both functions significantly improved the party classification of voters in a representative national sample (N = 769). Economic egalitarianism, a nonsalient dimension in Israeli politics, was unrelated to values. Results suggest that all types of values may be politically r
elevant depending on context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Personal-Values; *Political-Attitudes; *Voting-Behavior

Record 8 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1997-43375-003
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Church-state relations and the association of religiosity with values: A study of Catholics in six countries.
AU: Roccas,-Sonia; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Cross-Cultural-Research:-The-Journal-of-Comparative-Social-Science. 1997 Nov; Vol 31(4): 356-375
PB: US: Sage Publications Inc.
IS: 1069-3971
PY: 1997
AB: Extends S. H. Schwartz and S. Huismans's (see record 1996-01099-001) research which showed that individual religiosity relates positively to valuing conformity, security, tradition, and benevolence toward close others, and negatively to valuing stimulation, self-direction, universalism, power, and achievement. The present authors postulate that opposition between church and state modifies the associations of values with religiosity because it influences the social and psychological functions of religiosity in society. Data from samples in 6 Roman Catholic countries (N = 2,274) confirmed the following hypotheses: In countries with oppositional relations between church and state during the years that preceded data gathering (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary), religiosity correlated less positively with valuing conformity and security, more negatively with valuing power and achievement, and more positively with valuing universalism than in countries with cordial separation of church and state (Italy, Spain,
Portugal). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Personal-Values; *Religiosity-; *Roman-Catholicism

Record 9 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1997-04882-003
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Fear of war: Relations to values, gender, and mental health in Germany and Israel.
AU: Boehnke,-Klaus; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Peace-and-Conflict:-Journal-of-Peace-Psychology. 1997; Vol 3(2): 149-166
PB: US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
IS: 1078-1919
PY: 1997
AB: Examined the extent to which fear of conventional and nuclear war are related to value priorities in samples of 224 male and 348 female German (mean age 23.9 yrs) and Israeli (mean age 23.6 yrs) university students. Value priorities are postulated to influence the appraisal of threat. Results show fear of war is greater among those who attribute greater importance to values that express concern for others--universalism and benevolence, and to values that emphasize preservation of the social order--security and conformity. In Israel, fear of nuclear war is also greater among those who attribute greater importance to values that legitimate self-enhancement--power and achievement. Fear of war is greater among females than males, a finding attributable both to stereotypic response bias and to role socialization. Fear of war is not related to a variety of indicators of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Fear-; *Human-Sex-Differences; *Values-; *War-

Record 10 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1997-03956-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value priorities and social desirability: Much substance, some style.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Verkasalo,-Markku; Antonovsky,-Avishai; Sagiv,-Lilach
SO: British-Journal-of-Social-Psychology. 1997 Mar; Vol 36(1): 3-18
PB: England: British Psychological Society.
IS: 0144-6665
PY: 1997
AB: Hypothesizes that, as a stylistic bias, socially desirable responding (SD) would increase (1) the importance people attribute to values in general and (2) lead people to match own value ratings to those of importance in their social environment. As a substantive variable, SD would correlate positively with value types that emphasize social harmony (conformity, security, benevolence, tradition) and negatively with value types that challenge social conventions and harmony (hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, achievement, power). In separate studies, 207 Israeli adults and 131 Finnish social work students completed the Marlow--Crowne SD scale and a value survey. Both studies supported the substantive hypotheses. There was weak evidence for the 1st stylistic hypothesis, but none for the 2nd. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Personal-Values; *Response-Bias; *Social-Desirability; *Social-Environments

Record 11 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1996-98834-001SEE NEXT CHAPTER
DT: Chapter
TI: Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom
BK: Seligman, Clive (Ed); Olson, James M. (Ed); et-al. (1996). The psychology of values: The Ontario symposium, Vol. 8. The Ontario symposium on personality and social psychology, Vol. 8. (pp. 1-24). Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ix, 344 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 0805815740 (hardcover)
PY: 1996
AB: (from the chapter) illustrates how values systems can be treated as integrated wholes in their relations with behavior, and thereby, encourages researchers to abandon the prevailing single-values approaches / discusses 3 examples of the relations of value priorities with a diverse set of behavioral variables: cooperative behavior, voting in national elections, and readiness for contact with members of an out-group (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Cooperation-; *Social-Groups; *Social-Interaction; *Values-; *Voting-Behavior

Record 12 of 31 in PsycINFO 1996-1998

AN: 1996-05962-006
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Relations among sociopolitical values in Eastern Europe: Effects of the communist experience.
AU: Bardi,-Anat; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Political-Psychology. 1996 Sep; Vol 17(3): 525-549
PB: US: Blackwell Publishers.
IS: 0162-895X
PY: 1996
AB: Explains the nature and origins of a special value pattern observed in East European (EE) countries in terms of ideological inculcation under Communist regimes. Ss in each of 20 samples from 8 EE countries completed the Schwartz (1992) value survey in which they rated each of 56 single values as to whether they were considered guiding principles in their lives. Separate smallest space analyses of the structure of value relations were carried out for each of the 20 samples. In all but 3 samples, the 5 sociopolitical values (SPVs) emerged in closer proximity to one another than expected. This pattern suggests a shared meaning for the SPVs similar to that of conformity values and opposed to that of self-direction values. It is hypothesized that this unusual meaning of SPVs reflects the experience of living under EE communist regimes. Comparison of the value priorities among the communist regime in Poland supports this hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Communism-; *Political-Attitudes; *Social-Values

Record 13 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1996-01232-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value priorities and readiness for out-group social contact.
AU: Sagiv,-Lilach; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology. 1995 Sep; Vol 69(3): 437-448
PB: US: American Psychological Assn.
IS: 0022-3514
PY: 1995
AB: Relations of individuals' value priorities to their readiness for out-group social contact were examined in dominant and minority groups. Study 1 examined readiness of 151 Israeli Jewish teachers (dominant group) for contact with Israeli Arabs (minority). Readiness correlated positively with emphasizing universalism and self-direction values and negatively with emphasizing tradition, security, and conformity values. This confirmed an integrated set of hypotheses from S. H. Schwartz's (1992) value theory. Study 2 examined readiness of Israeli Arab Muslim (N = 111) and Christian (N = 88) teachers for contact with Israeli Jews. Hypotheses took account of differences between the two Arab minorities in motivation to integrate into the dominant society versus to preserve their uniqueness. Correlations with values confirmed most hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Personal-Values; *Racial-and-Ethnic-Relations; *Religious-Affiliation; *Social-Interaction

Record 14 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1996-01099-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value priorities and religiosity in four Western religions.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Huismans,-Sipke
SO: Social-Psychology-Quarterly. 1995 Jun; Vol 58(2): 88-107
PB: US: American Sociological Assn.
IS: 0190-2725
PY: 1995
AB: Two experiments examined the relationship between religiosity and value priorities among adherents of 4 religions: Judaism, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, and Greek Orthodoxy. Single values combined into 10 distinct value types: power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Exp 1 focused on a total of 1,731 members of the 4 religions in 4 countries where each is the dominant religion: Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, and Israel. Ss rated the importance of each of the 10 value sets as a guiding principle in their lives. Exp 2 compared responses of 849 Protestants and 827 Roman Catholics in West Germany. Results suggest that valuing certainty, self-restraint, and submission to superior external verities inclines people to become more religious in general; valuing openness to change and free self-expression inclines people to become less religious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Personal-Values; *Religiosity-

Record 15 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

DT: Chapter
TI: Value priorities in West European nations: A cross-cultural perspective.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Ros,-Maria
BK: Ben-Shakhar, Gershon (Ed); Lieblich, Amia (Ed). (1995). Studies in psychology in honor of Solomon Kugelmass. Publications of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Vol. 36. (pp. 322-347). Jerusalem, Israel: Magnes Press. 391 pp.SEE BOOK
PY: 1995
AB: (from the chapter) compares the value priorities of samples from a set of West European countries (Denmark, Finland, Greece, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland [French], and former West Germany) with the value priorities of matched samples from nations around the world, using a recent theory of the cultural dimensions of values on which nations differ / teachers are the focal group in the current study / they play an explicit role in value socialization, are presumably carriers of culture, and are probably close to the broad value consensus in societies / data were also obtained from samples of college students . . . and other adult samples / identify a unique profile of value priorities that is shared by the West European nations and that distinguishes the other nations /// samples were distinctive in the high priority they attribute to values of the types characterized as Egalitarian Commitment, Intellectual and Affective Autonomy, and Harmony, and in the low priority they attribute to Hierar
chy and Conservatism values / seek to explain the origins of this unique profile of value priorities by considering its historical antecedents and the more recent shared social-structural, economic, and political experiences of these nations (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Values-

Record 16 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1995-25105-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Sagiv,-Lilach
SO: Journal-of-Cross-Cultural-Psychology. 1995 Jan; Vol 26(1): 92-116
PB: US: Sage Publications Inc.
IS: 0022-0221
PY: 1995
AB: Reevaluates the propositions of S. H. Schwartz's (1992) values theory using data from 88 samples in 40 countries and provides criteria for identifying what is culture-specific (CSP) in value meanings and structure. Data confirm the widespread presence of 10 value types (VTs), arrayed on a motivational continuum and organized on virtually universal, orthogonal dimensions: openness to change vs conservation and self-transcendence vs self-enhancement. 44 values show high cross-cultural consistency of meaning. In the average sample, about 16% of single values diverge from their prototypical VTs, and 1 pair of motivationally close VTs is intermixed. Test-retest and randomly split sample analyses reveal that some two-thirds of deviations represent unreliable measurement and one-third represent CSP characteristics. Subsamples from Japan and Australia show how to identify consistent deviations that represent potentially CSP value meanings and structures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserve
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Values-

Record 17 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

DT: Chapter
TI: Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H
BK: Kim, Uichol (Ed); Triandis, Harry C. (Ed); et-al. (1994). Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Cross-cultural research and methodology series, Vol. 18. (pp. 85-119). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc. xix, 338 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 0803957629 (hardcover); 0803957637 (paperback)
PY: 1994
AB: (from the chapter) [explores] an aspect of culture by deriving a new set of dimensions of values appropriate for comparing cultures / present an alternative conceptual and operational approach for deriving cultural dimensions of values / apply this new approach in a study of value priorities in 87 samples from 41 cultural groups in 38 nations / [Ss were adolescents adn adults from 41 culture groups and 38 nations] / the new culture-level dimensions [the author derives] are then compared with G. Hofstede's [4 dimensions: power distance, uncertainty, avoidance, masculinity/feminity, individualism/collectivism] / present scores for 1 set of national samples on these dimensions /// provides an ordering of nations on the new value dimensions that can be used in future research / researchers can use these orderings to select cultural samples strategically / differences between the sample on psychological and social variables (e.g., perception, modernizaton) can then be studied as functions of theoretically bas
ed cultural dimensions / [Ss were adolescents and adults] from 41 culture groups and 38 nations (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences; *Values-

Record 18 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

DT: Chapter
TI: Studying human values.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H
BK: Bouvy, Anne-Marie (Ed); van de Vijver, Fons J. R. (Ed); et-al. (1994). Journeys into cross-cultural psychology. (pp. 239-254). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger. 403 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 9026514034 (paperback)
PY: 1994
AB: (from the chapter) previous theoretical and empirical programs of research on values have agreed in defining values as broad, transsituational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guiding principles in life / all view values as playing a central role in the social sciences as key antecedents, consequences, and correlates of human action and experience / our theory and collaborative research build on these approaches / the current chapter is devoted to the aspects of our program that are concerned with the values of individuals rather than those of cultures /// interpreting deviations from the near-universal patterns / relating value systems as integrated wholes to other variables / values as antecedents: readiness for social contact with outgroup members / value priorities as consequences: gender effects on value priorities across cultures (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Personal-Values

Record 19 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1995-36748-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values?
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Journal-of-Social-Issues. 1994 Win; Vol 50(4): 19-45
PB: US: Blackwell Publishers.
IS: 0022-4537
PY: 1994
AB: Presents a theory of potentially universal aspects in the content of human values. 10 types of values (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security) are distinguished by their motivational goals. The theory also postulates a structure of relations among the value types, based on the conflicts and compatibilities experienced when pursuing them. This structure permits one to relate systems of value priorities, as an integrated whole, to other variables. A new values instrument, based on the theory, is described. Evidence from 25,863 schoolteachers, university students, adults, and adolescents in 44 countries is summarized. Relations of this approach to M. Rokeach's (1973) work on values and to other theories and research on value dimensions are discussed. Application of the approach to social issues is exemplified in politics and intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Values-

Record 20 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1995-33018-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Values and personality.
AU: Bilsky,-Wolfgang; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: European-Journal-of-Personality. 1994 Sep; Vol 8(3): 163-181
PB: US: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
IS: 0890-2070
PY: 1994
AB: Examines relations between values and personality and attempts a theoretical integration. Recent concepts in values theory were used to develop a theoretical framework for structurally relating value concepts to personality variables, through which hypotheses regarding value-personality relations were derived and tested on 331 18-33 yr old German undergraduates. Measures included the Rokeach Value Survey and the Freiburg Personality Inventory. The addition of personality variables to a similarity structure analysis of the values had little effect on the structure of value relations, suggesting similar motivational dynamics underlying both sets of concepts. Findings reveal systematic associations of value priorities with personality variables, confirming the hypothesized structural relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Personality-Traits; *Values-

Record 21 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1995-30963-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value priorities in the United Germany: Teachers and students from East and West compared.
AU: Boehnke,-Klaus; Dettenborn,-Harry; Horstmann,-Karla; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: European-Journal-of-Psychology-of-Education. 1994 Sep; Vol 9(3): 191-202
PB: Portugal: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada.
IS: 0256-2928
PY: 1994
AB: Studied the value orientations of teachers and students of the teaching profession in East and West Germany based on a theory that discriminates 10 types of values (universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, and self-direction). 188 West German and 204 East German teachers and 377 West German and 274 East German students were studied using a 56-item value survey. Values in the East and the West opposed each other most strongly on the polarity of self-direction vs security, with the former more important in the West, and the latter in the East. Differences between teachers and students (regardless of area of origin) were at least equally large as those between East and West. From a cross-national perspective, however, the differences between East and West appear less substantial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *College-Students; *College-Teachers; *Values-

Record 22 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1995-09188-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Do values share universal content and structure? A South African test.
AU: Burgess,-Steven-M; Schwartz,-Shalom; Blackwell,-Roger-D
SO: South-African-Journal-of-Psychology. 1994 Mar; Vol 24(1): 1-12
PB: South Africa: Bureau for Scientific Publications.
IS: 0081-2463
PY: 1994
AB: Examined the validity of S. H. Schwartz's (1992) theory on the universal content and structure of values in 2 studies of diverse groups not previously tested. In Study 1, 1,364 Ss from the 4 major South African racial groupings completed the Rokeach Value Survey, a values scale applicable to Schwartz's theory. In Study 2, 387 multiethnic Ss completed the new Schwartz Value Survey. Results, with the exception of the Black subsample, are consistent with Schwartz's contention that values serve individual, collective, and mixed interests. Results also compare favorably with those from other international samples. The authors conclude that Schwartz's theory applies to South African values. (Afrikaans abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Racial-and-Ethnic-Groups; *Racial-and-Ethnic-Differences; *Values-

Record 23 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1994-31944-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Measurement models for the Schwartz values.
AU: Schmitt,-Manfred-J; Schwartz,-Shalom; Steyer,-Rolf; Schmitt,-Thomas
SO: European-Journal-of-Psychological-Assessment. 1993; Vol 9(2): 107-121
PB: US: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers.
IS: 1015-5759
PY: 1993
AB: Proposed a measurement model for the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) that takes into account method factors as well as systematic effects of the situation of measurement and of person-situation interaction. The SVI was administered to 224 Ss (aged 18-73 yrs) on 2 occasions, 6 wks apart. Traditional latent trait models (LTRMs) and latent state-trait models (LSTMs) with method factors were specified for each of 10 value scales (VSs) and were tested with LISREL. The LTRM was inadequate as a measurement model in all cases. For 9 of the 10 VSs, a LSTM with method factors fit the data best. For 1 VS, a LTRM with method factors was acceptable. The largest proportion of variance in individual value priorities was due to trait differences. Also, for 9 value types, small but significant proportions of variance reflected systematic effects of the particular occasion of measurement. Much of the variance in the VSs was due to method effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Personality-Measures; *Test-Administration; *Test-Scores; *Testing-Methods; *Values-

Record 24 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

DT: Chapter
TI: Religiosity and value priorities: A study of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews.
AU: Huismans,-Sipke; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
BK: Iwawaki, Saburo (Ed); Kashima, Yoshihisa (Ed); et-al. (1992). Innovations in cross-cultural psychology. (pp. 237-249). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger. 483 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 9026512325 (paperback)
PY: 1992
AB: (from the chapter) investigated relations between value priorities, religiosity, and religious group identity in samples from the Netherlands and Israel / the hypotheses were tested both across the whole sample and separately within four subsamples: Protestants, Roman Catholics, and non-affiliated people in the Netherlands, and Jews in Israel (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Religiosity-; *Religious-Affiliation; *Values-

Record 25 of 31 in PsycINFO 1992-1995

AN: 1992-88557-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Structure du questionnaire de valeurs de Schwartz. / Structure of the Schwartz questionnaire for values.
AU: Gendre,-Francis; Dupont,-J-B; Schwartz,-S
SO: Schweizerische-Zeitschrift-fuer-Psychologie. 1992; Vol 51(2): 128-134
PB: Switzerland: Verlag Hans Huber.
IS: 0036-7869
PY: 1992
AB: Studied the factorial structure of the values inventory developed by S. Schwartz and Bilsky (1987, 1990). Human Ss: 50 normal male and female Swiss adults (mean age 25 yrs) (university students and student teachers); 122 normal female Swiss adults (mean age 23 yrs) (university students and student teachers). Ss' scores on the inventory underwent separate factor analyses of terminal values and instrumental values, and the coherence and consistency of these factors were determined. Results were compared to the values categories proposed by the authors of the inventory. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Factor-Structure; *Inventories-; *Values-

Record 26 of 31 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

AN: 1992-08998-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Values and intergroup social motives: A study of Israeli and German students.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Struch,-Naomi; Bilsky,-Wolfgang
SO: Social-Psychology-Quarterly. 1990 Sep; Vol 53(3): 185-198
PB: US: American Sociological Assn.
IS: 0190-2725
PY: 1990
AB: Examined, in 2 studies with 119 Israeli and 117 German undergraduates, whether (1) the usual intergroup (IG) biases predicted by social identity theory characterize relations between these groups, (2) perceived value similarity is related negatively to IG antagonism, as suggested by belief congruence theory, and (3) particular value stereotypes are associated with IG antagonism, as predicted by a dehumanization approach. Hypotheses derived from the 3 theories were generally confirmed in a study of the antagonism/altruism of social motives that Israeli Ss thought typical Israeli and German education students would express toward each other in an allocation task. The hypotheses received partial support in the parallel study of German Ss which also included a social distance measure. German Ss thought German students would reverse the usual ingroup bias and would show favoritism to the Israeli outgroup. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Intergroup-Dynamics; *Social-Identity; *Values-

Record 27 of 31 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

AN: 1990-25308-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: Extensions and cross-cultural replications.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Bilsky,-Wolfgang
SO: Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology. 1990 May; Vol 58(5): 878-891
PB: US: American Psychological Assn.
IS: 0022-3514
PY: 1990
AB: The universality of S. H. Schwartz and W. Bilsky's (see record 1988-01444-001) theory of the psychological content and structure of human values was examined with data from Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Spain, and the United States. Smallest space analyses of the importance ratings that individuals assigned to values revealed the same 7 distinct motivational types of values in each sample as had emerged earlier in samples from Germany and Israel: achievement, enjoyment, maturity, prosocial, restrictive conformity, security, self-direction. Social power, studied only in Hong Kong, also emerged. The structural relations among the value types suggest that the motivational dynamics underlying people's value priorities are similar across the societies studied, with an exception in Hong Kong. The interests that values serve (individual vs. collective) and their goal type (instrumental vs. terminal) also distinguished values in all samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigne
MJ: *Cross-Cultural-Differences

Record 28 of 31 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

AN: 1992-86698-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Perceptions of conflict with haredim, perceptions of differences in basic values, and expressions of antagonism toward haredim.
AU: Struch,-Naomi; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Megamot. 1989 Mar; Vol 32(1): 5-26
PB: Israel: National Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences.
IS: 0025-8679
PY: 1989
AB: Studied perceptions and antagonism toward haredim (ultraorthodox Jews). Human Ss: 154 normal male and female Israeli adults (aged over 18 yrs) (living in 2 Jerusalem neighborhoods of French Hill and Ramat Eshkol). Ss answered questionnaires in their homes in July-August 1986 eliciting responses on: degree of personal involvement with haredim, degree of S's identification with his/her group, degree of conflict perceived between S's group and haredim, "hierarchization" of the basic values of the S's group and those of the haredim, willingness to have different social contacts with a non-haredi religious person and with a haredi person, willingness to support or oppose the establishment of different institutions for haredim in the city, and degree to which Ss sanction different antagonistic acts against haredim. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Conflict-; *Hostility-; *Judaism-; *Values-

Record 29 of 31 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

AN: 1992-86276-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: The value system of ultra-orthodox Israeli girls in comparative perspective.
AU: Gombo,-Ruth; Schwartz,-Shalom-H
SO: Megamot. 1989 Sep; Vol 32(3): 332-360
PB: Israel: National Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences.
IS: 0025-8679
PY: 1989
AB: Compared the relative importance attached to specific values and general domains of values by ultraorthodox and nonreligious women. Human Ss: 174 normal female Israeli adult (ultraorthodox) students at a women's religious college. 181 normal female Israeli adults (nonorthodox) education students. Ss ranked 2 sets of 18 general values in a questionnaire developed by M. Rokeach (1973) as guiding principles in their lives. They then inserted 6 additional values typifying ultraorthodox society developed by E. R. Goshen-Gottstein (1966) into their value hierarchy. The Mann-Whitney test was used to determine differences in the importance attached to values between the 2 groups, and Smallest Space Analysis (J. C. Lingoes, 1973) was used to analyze the structure of associations among the 2 groups' values. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Judaism-; *Personal-Values; *Religiosity-; *Social-Values

Record 30 of 31 in PsycINFO 1988-1991

AN: 1988-17555-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Value self-confrontation as a method to aid in weight loss.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Inbar-Saban,-Netta
SO: Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology. 1988 Mar; Vol 54(3): 396-404
PB: US: American Psychological Assn.
IS: 0022-3514
PY: 1988
AB: The impact on weight loss of an adaptation of the Rokeach (1973) value self-confrontation method was investigated in a field experiment. This method confronts people who have ranked their own values with information about the value priorities that discriminate between a positive and a negative reference group. A preliminary study revealed that successful weight losers differ from unsuccessful weight losers in valuing "wisdom" more than "happiness." Eighty-seven overweight adults were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: value self-confrontation, group discussion, or nontreatment control. Value self-confrontation subjects lost more weight than the other subjects over 2 months, and this weight loss persisted for an additional year. Changes in value priorities during the first 2 months suggest that weight loss was mediated by an increase in the importance attributed to wisdom relative to happiness. Implications for the theory of value-behavior relations and for practical application in weight loss
programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Cognitive-Techniques; *Group-Discussion; *Personal-Values; *Weight-Control

Record 31 of 31 in PsycINFO 1984-1987

AN: 1988-01444-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Toward a universal psychological structure of human values.
AU: Schwartz,-Shalom-H; Bilsky,-Wolfgang
SO: Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology. 1987 Sep; Vol 53(3): 550-562
PB: US: American Psychological Assn.
IS: 0022-3514
PY: 1987
AB: We constructed a theory of the universal types of values as criteria by viewing values as cognitive representations of three universal requirements: (a) biological needs, (b) interactional requirements for interpersonal coordination, and (c) societal demands for group welfare and survival. From these requirements, we have derived and presented conceptual and operational definitions for eight motivational domains of values: enjoyment, security, social power, achievement, self-direction, prosocial, restrictive conformity, and maturity. In addition, we have mapped values according to the interests they serve (individualistic vs. collectivist) and the type of goal to which they refer (terminal vs. instrumental). We postulated that the structural organization of value systems reflects the degree to which giving high priority simultaneously to different values is motivationally and practically feasible. To test our theory, we performed smallest space analyses on ratings given by subjects from Israel (N = 455)
and Germany (N = 331) of the importance of 36 Rokeach values as guiding principles in their lives. Partitioning of the obtained multidimensional space into regions revealed that people discriminate among values according to our a priori specifications of goal types, interests served, and motivational domains in both societies. Moreover, the motivational domains of values are organized dynamically in relation to one another in both societies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(unassigned)
MJ: *Personal-Values; *Social-Values; *Theories- (Source)

(Päivitetty/Edit 12.3.2010)